Friday, February 8, 2013

History of the webcam

Webcams typically include a lens, an image sensor, support electronics, and may also include a microphone for sound. Various lenses are available, the most common in consumer-grade webcams being a plastic lens that can be screwed in and out to focus the camera. Fixed focus lenses, which have no provision for adjustment, are also available. As a camera system's depth of field is greater for small image formats and is greater for lenses with a large f-number (small aperture), the systems used in webcams have a sufficiently large depth of field that the use of a fixed focus lens does not impact image sharpness to a great extent.
Image sensors can be CMOS or CCD, the former being dominant for low-cost cameras, but CCD cameras do not necessarily outperform CMOS-based cameras in the low cost price range. Most consumer webcams are capable of providing VGA resolution video at a frame rate of 30 frames per second. Many newer devices can produce video in multi-megapixel resolutions, and a few can run at high frame rates such as the PlayStation Eye, which can produce 320×240 video at 120 frames per second.
Support electronics read the image from the sensor and transmit it to the host computer. The camera pictured to the right, for example, uses a Sonix SN9C101 to transmit its image over USB. Typically, each frame is transmitted uncompressed in RGB or YUV or compressed as JPEG. Some cameras, such as mobile phone cameras, use a CMOS sensor with supporting electronics "on die", i.e. the sensor and the support electronics are built on a single silicon chip to save space and manufacturing costs. Most webcams feature built-in microphones to make video calling and videoconferencing more convenient.
The USB video device class (UVC) specification allows for interconnectivity of webcams to computers without the need for proprietary device drivers. Microsoft Windows XP SP2, Linux[13] and Mac OS X (since October 2005) have UVC support built in and do not require extra device drivers, although they are often installed to add additional features.

Wednesday, January 30, 2013

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Cam-girl or chat model is an Internet term for women who are featured on webcams. The word is used for women who operate their own webcams, such as Jennifer Ringley and Ana Voog. The term is also used to describe women or girls who broadcast themselves via webcam without receiving any financial gain. One of the original and most popular cam-girl sites was The corresponding masculine term is camboy.
A Camgirl who performs sexual services on the Internet with webcam software in exchange for money, goods, or attention may sometimes be (derogatorily) referred to as acamwhore (sometimes cam-whorecam whore or cam-slut) Some of the common ways of doing this is by charging a fixed per minute fee, by encouraging viewers to purchase items on their wish lists or to add to their online accounts. They may also earn money through advertising or earn commission by convincing customers to sign up for membership at adult paysites Commissions earned by camgirls vary widely by paysite, but are typically in the form of a flat fee, otherwise known as a "bounty", or based on a percentage of gross sales for every customer who signs up to a site. While the label is usually considered derogatory and insulting,[7] it is also sometimes self-applied, occasionally in a self-deprecating manner.
The term "camwhore" is also used to refer to individuals who post pictures or videos of themselves on the Internet to gain attention. The term disparages those who post pictures of themselves at inappropriate times or places and usually implies self-absorption. This second usage of the term, deriding vanity and histrionics, is overtaking the prior more intuitive definition.
The term camwhore was first used in print in November 2001,[8] but may have originated in Australia as early as 1999.[9]
Some insight into the world of underage camwhores was provided by a major article in the New York Times. It described the story of Justin Berry, a 13-year-old boy who, after hooking up his webcam and listing himself on an online forum in order to make friends, was propositioned by older men to strip and masturbate on camera. CNN referred to him as "in the language of cyberspace... a cam-whore".[10] He eventually started his own paysite, was molested for money, sold video recordings of his encounters with Mexican prostitutes, and helped hire other underage models. He made several hundred thousand dollars over five years. In the end he turned all information over to prosecutors in exchange for immunity.[11]